pH Balanced Shampoos
Look for shampoos which are pH balanced that will help maintain a healthy scalp. You can look for the following ingredients:
Microbial theory is the most widely accepted theory. It states that dandruff is caused due to a microbe, Malassezia Globosa, which is a naturally occurring microbe in everyone’s scalp. The organism is known to feed on sebum (natural scalp oils) which helps the hair and scalp skin to stay well-moisturised.
Once the sebum breaks down, a by-product named oleic acid is produced which most people are sensitive to. This sensitivity leads to irritated and inflamed scalp. The inflammation in turn signals the brain to let the skin cells shed at a faster rate. This shedding is what we call a dandruff.
The stratum corneum (SC) which is the outermost layer of epidermis, functions as a barrier against water loss and entry of microorganisms and other environmental agents The SC consists of several layers of “corneocytes”, encased in lipid lamellae, held together by specialized intercellular cell adhesion structures called corneodesmosomes. changes in the lamellar lipid composition, corneocyte size or shape, corneodesmosome number and SC thickness leads to changes in the epidermal permeability barrier function. Sebum normally influences this intercellular organisation to aid desquamation. But in dandruff, altered corneodesmosomal hydrolysis disrupts lipid organization and disturbs the desquamation process, leading to aberrant barrier function.Consistent with this, dandruff patients have more reactive (higher itch perception or flaking) than controls to topical applications of histamine or oleic acid to the scalp. These observations indicate that disrupted epidermal barrier function contributes to the aggravation of dandruff.
Apart from the theories mentioned above, the following theories are known to worsen the dandruff:
If you don’t clean your scalp regularly then the dirt, dust and oils that get accumulated due to air pollution and natural secretion of oils can lead to dandruff. One needs to shampoo regularly to keep their scalp clean and dandruff free.
For individuals suffering from dandruff, it is best to consult their respective doctors to choose a shampoo that suits them best. A pH balanced , sulfate free shampoo works best in maintaining scalp health and hygiene.
Dandruff is due to overcolonisation of the scalp by Malassezia species which is a part of the normal flora. The increased oil or sebum causes more proliferation of the fungus and causing flaking. This is the most accepted theory as most of the patients also report oily scalp or oily skin on the face.
There is hyperproliferation or increased shedding of corneocytes and malassezia secondarily infects the scales